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712 FART X: USE AND ADAPTATION Oh SCRIPTS 



TABLE 60.1 1 : Tatar (Volga Tatar, Kazan Tatar) Alphabet 



Letter 


Transliteration 


Phonetic Value 


Name 


A 


a 


a 


[a] 


[a] 


B 


6 


b 


[b] 


[be] 


B 


B 


V 


[w] /$_ 


[we] 


r 


r 


g 


[g]; W 


[ge] 


A 


fl 


d 


[d] 


[de] 


E 


e 


e 


[je]; [JY] /$_; [e] /C_ 


. De] 


(E 


e 


e) 




Do] 


:ac 


2C 


z 


[3] 


fee] 


3 


3 


z 


[z] 


[ze] 


H 


H 


i 


[i] 


[i] 


H 


H 


J 


[j]" 


[quis'qa 'i] 'short;' 


K 


K 


k 


M; [q]^ 


[qa] 


JI 


JI 


1 


[1] 


[el] 


M 


M 


m 


[m] 


[em] 


H 


H 


n 


[n] 


[en] 











[0] 


[0] 


n 


n 


P 


[P] 


[pe] 


p 


p 


r 


[r] 


[er] 


c 


c 


s 


[s] 


[es] 


T 


T 


t 


[t] 


[te] 


y 


y 


u 


[u]; [w] /U_$ 


[u] 





> 


f 


Wi 


[e« 


X 


X 


X 


[X] 


[xa] 


W 


^ 


c) 




[fse] 


H 


H 


c 


[tl] 


[tJe] 


m 


m 


s 


[/] 


[Ja] 


m 


ni; 


sc) 




[JtJa] 


!> 


T) 


" 


[?]/ u''-'' 


[qalyn'lYk bilge'se] 'sign of hardness' 


BI 


hi 


y 


[V] 


[V] 


B 


B 




[2]/_ia,b 


[netjkae'lek bilge'se] 'sign of thinness' 


3 


9 


h 


[e] /$_; [?] /_$ 


[e] 


K) 


K) 


ju 


Uu]; Uy] 


Du] 


il 


K 


ja 


Da]; U*] 


Da] 


8 


9 


a 


[86] 


[«] 


e 


e 


6 


[0] 


[0] 


Y 


Y 


ii 


[y]; [w] /i_$ 


[y] 


^ 


^ 


? 


m 


[d^e] 


^ 


^ 


n 


[q] 


[eq] 


n 


h 


h 


[h] 


[he] 



a. Tatar has no special symbols to distinguish velars from uvulars. In general, velars occur in front- vowel 
environments, uvulars in back- vowel environments. A uvular before a front vowel is indicated by writing the 
corresponding back vowel, e.g. Kapfl;9m kardds [qaer'daej] 'kinsman'. The front value of the vowel is usually 
retrievable from vowel harmony; if not, b is added at the end of the syllable, e.g. martinpL sagyjr' [JaVir] 
'poet' . Exceptional syllable-final velars are indicated by means of b, exceptional syllable-final uvulars by 
means of -b, e.g. ndiKhpak' [pak] 'pure', Bsr-bAG vdg"dd [waeK'dae] 'promise'. 

b. [ja] and [jae] are both written h, [ju] and [jy] both k), [jy] and [je] both e; after a consonant, b is inserted 
before the yotated vowel in front-vowel environments, !> in back-vowel environments. The ambiguity between 
front- and back- vowel pronunciations is usually resolved by vowel harmony; if not, b is added syllable-finally 
to specify the front value of the vowel, e.g. lOHh jun' [jyn] 'cheap'. In all other cases, [j] is written h. 



/. Tatar: 

2. Transliteration: 

5. Transcription: 

4. Gloss: 



Sample of Tatar 

JIaKHH cesra KypKMHBiH k)k. 

Lakin sezga kurkynyc juk. 

'laekin sez'gas qurqv'nYtJ 'juq 

but to.you danger not.exist 



1. KaxBi 6yjica ^a, yji 

2. katy bulsa da, ul 

3. qa'tY bul'sa da 'ul 

4. strong would.be even it 



cesHCH; 6HeK 

seznei] biek 

sez'neq bi'jek 

your high 



flyjIKBIH HHHaKJIBI 

Dulkyn nicakly 
dul'qvn 'nitJaqlY 
wave how.much 

xay HToreH^are 

tau itagendage 

'taw itaegendae'ge 

mountain at.its.foot.LiNK 



/. urynygyzga 

2. urynygyzga 

3. urvnYKYz'Ka 

4. to.place 



KHJien 3C,HT9 

kilep |ita 

ki'lep dji'tae 

come.and reaching 



ajiMaanaK. Cesrs xbiHLiM 6yjiLipra, 

almajacak. Sezga tynyc bulyrga, 

'almajatjaq sez'gae tY'nYtJ bulYr'Ka 

will.not.take to.you peaceful to.be 



/. Tapa39Jiapere3He 

2. tarazalaregezne 

3. taeraezaelaeregez'ne 

4. your. windows 



aHbin, ffHHires TaBLiniLiH 
acyp, diQgez tavysyn 
a'tjYp diq'gez tawY'/Yn 
open. and sea its. voice 



Ti>iH;jiapra ^a annaH 

tyqlarga da annan 

tYrjlar'Ka da an'nan 

to.listen also from.that 

^LiMapra momkhh. 

cumarga momkin. 

tJumar'Ka m0m'kin 

to.plunge possible 

'But there is no danger for you. However strong the wave may be, it cannot 
come and reach your place at the foot of the high mountain. You may be peace- 
ful, you may open your windows and listen to the sea and after that again 
plunge restfully into your sleep.' 

— G. IbrahimoVy Eesnei^ KOHHOp [Our days], in Vinogradov ig66-68, 2:1^2. 



I. 


COI^ 


paX9T-p9X9T 


xarwH 


HOKLirbisra 


2. 


SOl} 


raxat-raxat 


tagyn 


jokygyzga 


3- 


soq 


rae'xaet-raexaet 


ta'KYn 


joqYKYz'Ka 


4. 


after 


rest.rest 


again 


to.your.sleep 



Bibliography 

Comrie, Bernard. 1981. Languages of the Soviet Union. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

. 1994. "An Evaluation of Chukchee Orthography." In Linguistic Studies in the Non-Slavic 

Languages of the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Baltic Republics, ed. Howard 

L Aronson, pp. 55-64- Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society. 
Poppe, Nicholas. 1963. Tatar Manual (Indiana University Publications, Uralic and Altaic Series 25). 

Bloomington: Indiana University; The Hague: Mouton. 
Poppe, Nicholas. 1963. Tatar Manual (Indiana University Publications, Uralic and Altaic Series 25). 

Bloomington: Indiana University; The Hague: Mouton. 



THE WORLD'S 
WRITING SYSTEMS 



Edited by 
Peter T. Daniels 

William Bright